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This list of trusted certificates provided and maintained by Google applies only to Gmail for S/MIME. The list of CAs are trusted solely at Google's discretion and Google retains the right to remove root CAs at will, with or without reason.


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Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our политика конфиденциальности.

The Server Upgrade License message is sent to theclient to upgrade a license in its license store. Themessage type is UPGRADE_LICENSE (0x04) in the Licensing Preamble(section Seesection for moreinformation.

The following certificate authorities are supported by HTTPS endpoints in topic rule destinations. You can choose one of these supported certificate authorities. The signatures are for reference. Note that you can't use self-signed certificates because they won't work.

The article considers the notary as a subject of active influence on the formation of postmodern democratic legal society, mediation of law in postmodern society. The constitutional definition of the state in this status does not mean that the civil law consciousness prevails in all spheres of its life. Since no person in society does not need this type of legal service, it is quite objective to consider this community as a subject whose activities should be considered as a subject of formation not only of legal consciousness of society but also a leading subject of civil society. This primarily applies to private notaries, who, unlike public notaries, are fully responsible for the results of their activities. After all, a legal duty is organically combined with the responsibility from which the public notary is released. The study of the manifestations of the phenomenon of postmodernism is relevant to many disciplines, including - the philosophy of law. Modern research shows that classical types of legal understanding do not satisfy the understanding of postmodern law, which indicates the need to find a fundamentally new concept of law. The author concludes that the solution to this problem should be sought in the field of theories that offer new approaches to the interpretation of legal texts; this area is considered the most promising.

Ice, Y. (2014). Notarial'naya deyatel'nost' v ramkakh korporativnogo prava Germanii [Notarial activity within the framework of German corporate law]. Small encyclopedia of notaries, 3(75), 9-13. -bd-d0-be-d1-82-d0-b0-d1-80-d0-b8-d0-b0-d0-bb-d1-8c-d0-bd-d0-b0-d1-8f-d0-b4-d0-b5-d1-8f-d1-82-d0-b5-d0-bb-d1-8c-d0-bd-d0-be-d1-81-d1-82-d1-8c-d0-b2-d1-80-d0-b0-d0-bc-d0-ba-d0-b0-d1-85-d0-ba/

Ivantsov, V. (2020). Osobye printsypy oddel'nykh protsedur v administrativno-deliktnom zakonodatel'stve [Special principles of certain procedures in the administrative-tort legislation]. European Journal of Law and Political Sciences, 1, 10-13. _IDA(2015)519224_EN.pdf

They were first mentioned as a separate ethnic group in the Russian Empire Census in 1897 and First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926. According to 1897 Census their population was 4,433. In 1926 there were 7,528 Baraba Tatars.

The Baraba Tatars are descended from Kipchak tribes who inhabited the region during the 12th and 13th centuries. The region was conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century and was incorporated into the White Horde. The Baraba Tatars lived in the eastern portion of the Khanate of Sibir when it was established in the 15th century.[5]

The Russians subjugated the Baraba Tatars in the 18th century. During the 19th century, the autonomy of the Baraba Tatars eroded away due to the influx of Russian setters to the region and the high taxes imposed on them by the Russian state.[5] The Russian settlers pushed out the Baraba from more fertile lands.[6]

The Dzungar Khanate extracted yasaq (tribute) from their Baraba Muslim underlings. Converting to Orthodox Christianity and becoming Russian subjects was a tactic by the Baraba to find an excuse not to pay yasaq to the Dzungars.[7] Since Muslim Siberian Bukharans had legal advantages and privileges under Russia, Barabas pretended to be them.[8]

The Baraba Tatars are Sunni Muslims. They adopted Islam at around the latter half of the 18th century. However, the Baraba Tatars may have been exposed to Islam as early as the late 16th century and some may have been Muslim by the early 17th century.[7]

The most common Y-DNA haplogroup among Baraba Tatars is the haplogroup Q, specifically the Q-YP4000 and Q-L330 subclades. Among northern Baraba Tatars, the most widespread is haplogroup N1b-P43. Other, less common haplogroups are R1a1-Z93 and R1b-M73.[10]

This article is part two of three covering encryption concepts and the Internet public key infrastructure (PKI). The first article in this series introduced symmetric and public key (asymmetric) encryption in cryptography. If you're not familiar with the basic concept of public-key encryption, you should read part one before you go ahead with this one.

In this part, I show you the basics of Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer (TLS/SSL), how the Internet PKI works, and OpenSSL, the Swiss Army knife for TLS/SSL tasks. I cover how to use OpenSSL to create key-pairs and to generate a certificate signing request (CSR) to send to your certificate authority (CA) for signing. After that, I discuss some weaknesses of the Internet PKI you should be aware of.

Assume that you're a sysadmin like me and one of your tasks is to manage a webserver. Because your users care about authenticity, integrity, and privacy, you'd like to secure your web application with some kind of encryption.* You don't know in advance who's using your site, so symmetric encryption is off the table because of its key distribution problem. I use public-key encryption in the following sections instead.

The acronyms for Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer are TLS and SSL. They are used interchangeably most of the time, and that's OK. While the old SSL protocol versions are deprecated, you'll usually find TLSv1.2 and TLSv1.3 on the web these days. TLS is used in HTTPS connections between some clients and some web servers. The following image shows a simple example of an HTTPS handshake.

First, the well-known TCP handshake happens between client and server. Then the client starts the HTTPS handshake by sending the ClientHello. In this step, the client transmits information about the server name it requests and the supported cipher suites. The server responds with the ServerHello, transmits a selected cipher suite, connection parameters, and sends information for calculating a symmetric key for the ongoing connection. Last but not least, it sends its certificate to authenticate itself to the client.

Focus on the certificate the server has transmitted to the client. It contains the server's public key, which the client uses to encrypt data before sending it to the server. A trusted Certificate Authority (CA) signed the public key in the certificate. Today, every operating system and web browser comes with a store containing the public keys of many different trusted CAs. These public keys are then used to verify the signatures in server certificates like the one discussed here. This way, the client can check the server's authenticity and that it is the correct host the client wants to connect to.

Be aware that public key encryption is used only to establish the HTTPS connections and calculate a symmetric session key used for further communication. That's because symmetric encryption is much faster than asymmetric.

So now the question is, how do you get the key-pair for the webserver? As stated earlier, OpenSSL is the Swiss Army knife for SSL and TLS tasks. Since its documentation has left some room for improvement, I suggest that you read the free book, OpenSSL Cookbook by Ivan Ristic to get all the details. My article focuses on creating a key-pair and a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for a single domain name and a CSR that includes multiple domain names.

The CSR is needed to send the public key and other information about your domain to a CA for signing. The signed public key you'll get back is your certificate which you will install on your web server along with the corresponding private key.

You'll find both files in your current working directory. The passphrase you entered during the creation process protects your private key file. If you open them in some kind of text viewer, you'll only recognize that these are a private key and a CSR but won't find further plain text information:

Attention: Never share your private key(s) with anyone. They are yours and yours only. Keep them secret, safe, and sound. Follow your organization's policies for handling private keys, CSRs, and certificates. The security of your organization (and your job) may depend on it.

The first section [ req ] specifies that a private RSA key with 2048 bits is to be generated and stored as test_privatekey.pem. Also, the section contains information about finding the bits that you entered interactively in the earlier section of this article (in the section [ req_distinguished_name ]. In [ v3_req ], you'll find some constraints on keyUsage but more importantly, for this article, the parameter subjectAltName where the common name and all additional names are specified. Save it as openssl.cnf and run it with the following command to create a private key and CSR:

Whether you need only one domain name or more in your certificate, you now know how to generate the necessary CSR. For an in-depth understanding, I suggest that you refer to the book I recommended above. 041b061a72

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